AI / ML Principal Texts & Papers

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most of the big questions of intelligence have not been answered
nor properly formulated
Lex Friedman - MIT (2019)

This page lists major reference textbooks and papers associated with current Artificial /Machine Intelligence and Learning practice.

It also lists some of the more significant 'origins of AI' related texts as well as links to historically relevant sites. Criteria for papers are mostly based on citations and 'prize' papers. Some entries are also based on subjective assessment of being seminal and/or highly informative.


1. Russell, S. J., & Norvig, P. (2016).  Artificial intelligence: a modern approach. 
This is an updated edition of the 2010 version containing extensive current references.
[note the book is getting hard to find sometimes due to demand, and its being the definitive AI textbook. Check the edition you are using/getting] 

2. Sutton, R. S., & Barto, A. G. (2018). Reinforcement learning: An introduction. MIT Press. This is an updated (2nd) edition of the 1998 version.

3. Nilsson, N. J., & Nilsson, N. J. (1998). Artificial intelligence: a new synthesis. Morgan Kaufmann. 

4. Poole, D. L., Mackworth, A. K., & Goebel, R. (1998). Computational intelligence: a logical approach (Vol. 1). New York: Oxford University Press. 
see also Artificial Intelligence: Foundations of Computational Agents 2nd Edition by the same authors.

(to be prettified and linked later on )

Gelernter, D. (2016). The tides of mind: Uncovering the spectrum of consciousness. WW Norton & Company.

Marquis, P., Papini, O., & Prade, H. (2014). Some Elements for a Prehistory of Artificial Intelligence in the Last Four Centuries. ECAI.

Scheutz, M. (Ed.). (2002). Computationalism: new directions. MIT Press.

Pratt, V. (1987). Thinking Machines—The Evolution of Artificial Intelligence. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. 

Turing, A. M. (1948). Intelligent machinery. NPL. Mathematics Division. See also, Turing, A. (2004). Intelligent machinery (1948). B. Jack Copeland, 395 which provides context and pointers to additional Turing resources.



SI-1. Good, I. J. (1966). Speculations concerning the first ultraintelligent machine. In Advances in computers (Vol. 6, pp. 31-88). Elsevier.

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