Note, I am just starting this discussion ... and this page is only one step in a million or more steps ... so 'hold your fire' if you (correctly) believe that I hardly touched on anything. I haven't, ... there's a lot of work to do, many people are working it. MY aim to add different and additional perspectives.
AI in Medicine (AIM) approaches and applications have assisted in both trivial and profound ways, and they hold great promise. We argue that there are even larger systemic benefits when AI enabled medicine is considered at a national level.
This page aims to present relevant information and links to resources useful in furthering AIM objectives. Some links point to reports,preprints, papers, and books, other point to active and inactive databases, still others point software repositories and AIM specific software and platforms. While some of the links point to completed and/or terminated projects, we believe there's much to be learned from the linked resources, and we hope these are used to spark curiosity and further ideas and progress in the spirit of "on the shoulders of Giants".
AIM Related Projects
IBM WATSON / WatsonPaths:
IBM's Watson architecture was and is being employed in Medical
WatsonPaths: Scenario-Based Question Answering and Inference over Unstructured Information is a key paper available here. As an illustration, the paper discusses a Patient with Erythropoietin Deficiency. Via the query “A 32-year-old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus has had progressive renal failure... Her hemoglobin concentration is 9 g/dL... A blood smear shows normochromic, normocytic cells. What is the problem?
Since Watson for Medicine is a major platform, we provide additional discussion and links here.
Hetnets in biomedicine - Hetnets — short
for heterogeneous networks with multiple node or relationship types;
Useful for data integration, translation, and biomedical
Project Rephetio (Drug
Repurposing) developed to predict new uses for existing compounds.
Utilizes edge prediction method and systematic model of drug efficacy,
to predict the probability of treatment between over 1500 approved
small molecule compounds and over 130 complex diseases. Documentation
states the "This study describes Project Rephetio to systematically
model drug efficacy based on 755 existing treatments. First, we
constructed Hetionet (neo4j.het.io),
an integrative network encoding knowledge from millions of biomedical
studies. Hetionet v1.0 consists of 47,031 nodes of 11 types and
2,250,197 relationships of 24 types. Data were integrated from 29
public resources to connect compounds, diseases, genes, anatomies,
pathways, biological processes, molecular functions, cellular
components, pharmacologic classes, side effects, and symptoms. Next,
we identified network patterns that distinguish treatments from
non-treatments. Then, we predicted the probability of treatment for
209,168 compound–disease pairs (het.io/repurpose)."
there's a related Disease-Associated Gene Browser.
to be "the world's most comprehensive repository of biomedical
ontologies". It states there are 779 ontologies in its repository (as
of 06/06/19). These contain 9,531,435 classes and 144,789,582,932
Direct Plus Expanded Annotations. Happy Hunting :-) In the
meanwhile, here are some more manageable pieces ... of course
we're going to visit and revisit MeSH
(Medical Subject Headings (MeSH);National Library of Medicine
-NLM). NLM reports that The MeSH Browser now displays
2019 MeSH and 2018 MeSH vocabularies and that all the 2019 MeSH files
are vailable via FTP download . Nice!
OGMS - The
Ontology for General Medical Science - based on the
papers Toward an Ontological Treatment of Disease and Diagnosis and On
Carcinomas and Other Pathological Entities. The ontology attempts to
address some of the issues raised at the Workshop on Ontology of
Diseases (Dallas, TX) and the Signs, Symptoms, and Findings
Workshop(Milan, Italy). OGMS was formerly called the clinical
phenotype ontology. Terms from OGMS hang from the Basic Formal
Ontology. See http://ontology.buffalo.edu/medo/Disease_and_Diagnosis.pdf
PATENT EXPLORATiON EXPERIMENTS (PATEX)
to check reality, I am exploring recent US Patents Granted (by USPTO) that include "Artificial Intelligence" and Medicine in their discussion.
PATEXs results are discussed at:
more more more
to be added
under continuing construction
(c) ,2019 ARCHSIX.COM (for ARCHSIX CREATED MATERIAL)